Retelling text very often used in school, because it isThe exercise not only demonstrates the level of development of speech, but also shows how much the child is able to understand and analyze the text heard or read. But the retelling of the text in children often causes difficulties. How to help the child overcome them?
There are two main reasons why a child may have difficulty with a text retelling: this is a problem with the development of speech or problems withunderstanding, analysis and formulation of what was heard. In the first case, the emphasis should be placed on the development of speech and do it not with the help of retelling, but with the help of simpler games for the development of speech. But in the second case it is necessary to train the ability of the child to make a retelling of the text.
First you need to select the right test for retelling. First of all, the text for retelling shouldto match the level of development of the child: try to choose tests that are easy for the child's perception. In such texts, the actions performed by the characters must be understood by the child, and the characters themselves must have pronounced characters. The volume of the text should not be too large.
We also need to remember that the education and upbringing of the child always go hand in hand. Therefore, the test must necessarily have an educational value, to teach the child something useful and good. Finally, the text for the retelling should be of interest to the child: perhaps the paraphrase of the text "does not go" precisely because the proposed tests are not of interest.
Begin to master the paraphrase of the text better from fairy tales: they are interesting to the child, they are quite simple, butwhile not primitive, have a clear structure and a measured course of events. Later you can gradually move on to stories, increase the amount of texts offered for retelling.
To prepare the child for paraphrase of the text it is necessary ona certain plan: if you read the text to the child, and then immediately ask him to retell, it is unlikely that he will succeed. Let's be frank: not even for every adult it will come out. Therefore, the test will need to be read several times, and between readings - perform certain tasks with the child.
After reading the text for the child for the first time, determine with it what is in the text. It does not have to be a full retellingtext: just highlight the main idea and formulate it in a couple of sentences. At this stage, you need to pay attention to the title of the text and, together with the child, think why the author called it that way, and not otherwise. Note that the text should be read slowly, clearly and legibly.
After this, you need to determine what parts of the text consists of. To each part you need to come up with questions(do it in advance). Then read the test again to the child, and let him answer these questions (perhaps with your help). After the second reading, you can make a plan that will make it easier for the child to retell the text.
To do this, you need to re-read the text again, byparts. Each part is one or several paragraphs, united by a common idea. You can come up with your own names for each item of the plan or use phrases from the text that most accurately express the basic idea of each semantic part. Now read the plan together with the child and ask him to retell the idea of each paragraph aloud (with your help). Then let him do the same, only to himself.
It's time for one more reading of the text. Listening to the text, let the child concentrate on the basic ideas, the order in which they are presented, highlights the brightest images and examples that support the basic idea. After that, discuss with the child the most significant details of the text. But it is not necessary to go deep into details: if the paraphrase of the text is too detailed, the child simply "does not see the forest behind the trees". It is necessary to teach him to distinguish essential details from non-essential. Be sure at this stage to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar words, if they exist in the text.
Finally, take an interest in the opinion of the child: the text probably caused him some thoughts, emotions, experiences. Ask him how, in his opinion, the authorrefers to the main characters and events? And how does he feel? Does he agree with the author? Let the child describe as accurately as possible, what he liked about the text, and what did not. Finally, finally let the child respond to the six questions, which will help to refresh the content of the text in your head:
What is he doing?
And now you can take it for the retelling of the text. As help at first you can use the story pictures: ready or painted by the child himself inthe process of preparing for retelling. And remember that retelling a text is a training not so much memorizing as understanding. Do not require the child to mechanically memorize the text: if he understands it, he will tell it in his own words.