We all love our pets and want forthey are only the best. But animals differ from man and what we consider useful for them, in fact, may even prove harmful. So, the owners often feed the dogs as they have: then leftovers from their table, then various by-products, meat or fish. This approach to feeding dogs can not be called rational.
The digestive system in the dog workssomewhat differently than in humans. The dog does not chew on food, it tears it up and swallows it in large pieces. Nutrients from food, too, the dog learns differently, so the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in its food should be "sharpened" just under the canine body.
Energy exchange in dogs depends on their weight. In large dogs, whose weight exceeds 50 kg, the energy requirement is 2000-4000 calories, depending on the type of load. Dogs of small breeds that weigh no more than 10-15 kg, need energy from 500 to 1000 calories, also depending on the load. In addition, when moving, the energy expenditure of the dog is maximum - an additional 1 kcal per kilogram of weight for every 2 km of the path. The nutrition of the dog should fully fill these costs.
Dogs best learn raw meat. But because of the high cost of this product, notit always turns out to give the dog enough meat. But in any case, the total need of the dog in proteins should be provided with a minimum of five percent of the animal proteins. Vital amino acids for the dog are found not only in meat, but also in other foods. For example, amino acids such as lysine and methionine in sufficient quantities are only dry yeast.
Fats are absorbed by the dog well (up to 90%), howeveryou can not give the dog food for a long time, which contains only saturated fatty acids, since this leads to skin diseases. Also, you can not give the dog rancid fats, from them in the body are destroyed vitamins A and E.
Dogs should not be given potatoes and legumes, because these products are very hard to digest by their digestive system. The need for a dog in carbohydrates is covered by starch, which is contained in the croup.
Cow's milk adult dogs do not digest due to the lack of digestive enzyme, which cleaves lactose of milk. Lactose in the dog's diet should not be more than 4%, otherwise it can cause diarrhea.
The need for a dog in calcium, as well as in phosphorus and magnesium, can be met if in the diet add 1-2 percent bone meal. Feed the raw bone to the dog you can, but it's best not to abuse it, because bones, especially tubular, can injure the dog with their splinters.
For vitaminization in the diet of a dog is worth addingvegetable products such as spinach, tomatoes, cauliflower, carrots, apples. But plant foods should not be very much, since its excess causes a deficiency of minerals in the dog's body.
On nutritional value of a dog's diet The methods of heat treatment of food also influence. The way to prepare meat for the degree of its digestibility by the dog does not affect, although it is better to give preference to raw meat (unless there is any doubt about its quality). But the treatment of hydrocarbon-containing foods, cottage cheese or chicken eggs plays an important role in the digestion of these products. So, for example, a dog digests a raw egg-white egg only by 50-60%, and boiled - by 90%.
In this way, optimally in the daily diet of an adult dog should include 3-4 g / kg of crude protein (10-20g / kg in terms of meat products), 1-2 g / kg fat (1/10 amount of meat) and 5-6 g / kg carbohydrates (1/2 the amount of meat). The ratio of protein food to plant is normal for an adult dog should be 2: 1, for a puppy and a puppy female - 3: 1.
A balanced diet consisting of energy and physiological needs, for dogs of different breeds is the following (according to Donat, 1975).
Large breeds: East European Shepherd Dog, Great Dane, St. Bernard - 200 grams of milk, 600 grams of meat, 300 grams of boiled rice or bread, 60 grams of fat, 50 g of bone meal.
Medium breeds: German Shepherd, Airedale Terrier, Collie, Risenschnauzer - 100 grams of milk, 300 grams of meat, 150 grams of boiled rice or bread, 25 grams of fat, 20 g of bone meal.
Small breeds: fox terrier, Tibetan terrier, small poodle - 50 g of milk, 150 g of meat, 75 g of boiled rice or bread, 10 g of bone meal.
Dwarfish rocks: toy terrier, dwarf pincher, lap-30 g milk, 100 grams of meat, 50 grams of boiled rice or bread, 8 grams of fat, 7 g of bone meal.
The multiplicity of feedings is established in relationfrom the age of the animal: the pups are fed every 2 hours during the first week of life, in the following three weeks - every 3 hours, at the age of 1 to 2 months - 5-6 times a day, 2 to 3 months - 4 times, 3 up to 5 months - 3 times and further - 2 times a day for life, in the morning offering only milk, and in the evening - the main feeding. As an exception, for dogs of large breeds the daily ration is divided into 3-4 feedings in small portions.