Any psychologist will tell you that a child is a person. But what is personality? Is it possible to somehow influence the development of the child's personality? Let's talk about this with the Land of Soviets.
There are many different definitionspersonality in terms of psychology or social science. For example, the common denominational term "person" implies a human individual as a subject of relations and conscious activity.
Every person is an individual, but not every individual is a person. Formation of the individual personality does not happen suddenly, this process affects many factors.
The whole process of personality development can be divided into several stages in accordance with the age of the child:
- early childhood (0-3)
- preschool and school childhood (4-11)
- adolescence (12-15)
- youth (16-18)
The preconditions for the development of personality are laid down inthe body of a child even before his birth - this is the so-called perinatal (prenatal) matrix. The theory of basic perinatal matrices was developed by Stanislav Grof. According to this theory, the experience of the future child of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as the events of the postpartum period, are recorded in the child in the form of four main matrices, which subsequently influence the development of the child's personality.
The coveted children who were born naturalby way of and did not experience birth traumas, the life potential, the ability to adapt, the activity is higher than in children who experienced difficulties during pregnancy and childbirth.
Newborn baby immediately comes into contact with the outside world: mom, doctors, nurses. And although he does not yet know how to express his emotions, he is already beginning to explore the world, his personality is beginning to develop.
At the age of up to three years the child is brought up infamily and its relationship with this social group have a huge impact on the development of the individual. If the spirit of cooperation prevails in the family, goodwill, mutual understanding, the child's personality develops as a caring, gentle person, able to recognize their mistakes and be responsible for them.
The child goes through three phases of personality development:
- adaptation (mastering the simplest skills, mastering the language);
- individualization (contrasting oneself with others, singling out one's "I");
- integration (behavior management, the ability to obey adults, "management" of adults).
If by the next age period the childthe phase of the previous one's intergation did not end, then the preconditions for the crisis of personal development are formed. A typical example of the crisis of personal development is the "crisis of three years".
In preschool age, another significant from the point of viewview of the development of the individual social group becomes the collective. As a rule, it is a collective of a kindergarten. The development of a child's personality is influenced by his relationships not only with peers, but also with educators. The child learns the norms of discipline, interaction with others.
Being in the phase of individualization of thisof the age period, the child seeks to stand out in the team either through the positive presentation of himself in various activities, or through pranks and prose. In this phase, the assessment of the caregiver for the child is as important as the assessment of the parents.
At a younger school age, the child is alsopasses all three phases of personality development, as in the previous age period. The child is included in a new social group, now the evaluation of the teacher is of considerable importance for him.
Adolescence in the development of personalitydiffers in that the child does not go into a new group, the group itself changes. For the child at this age, different extracurricular activities acquire importance, communication with the peer group. The opinion of peers can be more authoritative than the opinion of teachers and parents.
In adolescence, children often experienceone crisis of personality development, which is provoked by too rapid changes in the socio-psychological structure of the group in which they are located. For the crisis of this age, the spirit of contradiction is characteristic, the desire to do everything in own way, to acquire own experience of successes and misses.
By the age of 18, as a rule, the personality of the childis completely formed. Cardinally change the already established personality can not, you can only help the child to correct his behavior. Therefore, it is so important to instill in the child moral and ethical values in a timely manner, to teach him the norms of behavior and human relationships when the child's personality is still developing.